The turbinates (Ossa turbinata) are delicate, scroll-like bones, two on either side, which are attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity. Each is composed of a very thin lamina, cribriform in many places, and covered on both sides with mucous membrane in the fresh state. They are arranged in two pairs, superior and inferior. The superior or Nasoturbinal (Concha dorsalis) is somewhat cylindrical in form, small at its anterior part, and flattened transversely. It is attached to the turbinal crest of the nasal bone and the nasal plate of the frontal bone. The inferior or maxilloturbinal bone (Concha ventralis) is shorter and smaller posteriorly than the upper one. It is attached to the inferior turbinal crest.