Immunotoxic effects of cypermethrin in mitogen stimulated chicken lymphocytes due to oxidative stress and apoptosis
Sonu Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar Ambwani and Ramswaroop Singh Chauhan
Today chemical pesticides have become crucial as these are playing vital role in controlling agricultural, industrial, home garden and public health pests globally. However, pesticides are constantly contaminating environment and adversely affecting animal and human health. Cypermethrin is a composite pyrethroid; a broad spectrum, non-cumulative insecticide; and, a fast-acting neurotoxin. Present communication reports cypermethrin induced immunotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in chicken lymphocyte cell culture system employing lymphocyte proliferation assay, nitric oxide (NO) assay, annexin-V assay (AVA) and DNA fragmentation analysis. There was a marked reduction in B and T cells proliferation due to in vitro exposure of cypermethrin. Oxidative stress was increased significantly in cypermethrin treated cells as revealed through NO estimation. AVA revealed significant increase in cells undergoing apoptosis in cypermethrin treated cells. This was further confirmed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. Thus, from the findings it could be inferred that low level dose of cypermethrin induces significant immunotoxic effects because of higher oxidative stress and apoptosis in avian lymphocytes.