Milk fat comprises of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids; some of them are recognized to exert a beneficial effect on human health. Short and medium chain saturated fatty acids are synthesized de novo in the mammary gland while long chain fatty acid are derived from blood circulation. Milk fat is the main source of energy and natural carriers’ of triacylglycerols and bioactive molecules to the intestine of infants. They are also involved in providing the information needed for the growth of intestinal mucosa, the immune and nervous systems along with metabolic activity. They have impact on the technological and nutritional properties of the milk, hence, are important components of milk composition. The composition of milk fatty acid is affected by numerous non genetic factors such as species differences, parity or lactation order, age, size and health status of the cow, dietary composition, feeding, season, pregnancy, sire service period, lameness, heat stress, milking interval etc. Changes in milk fatty acid composition could alter nutritional and commercial values of milk as an input for dairy processing. Thus, milk fatty composition is of great importance to the dairy industry as most milk is traded as a processed product.