Environmental effects on insects and their population dynamics
A. Khaliq, M. Javed, M. Sohail, Muhammad Sagheer
Insects are powerful and rapid adaptive organisms with high fecundity rate and short life cycle. Due to human interruption in agro-ecosystem and global climatic variations are disturbing the insect ecosystem. Erosion of natural habitats, urbanization, pollution and use of chemicals in agroecosystem manifold the intensity of environmental variations. Both a-biotic (temperature, humidity, light) and biotic (host, vegetative biodiversity, crowding and diets) stresses significantly influence theinsects and their population dynamics. In response to these factors insect may prolong their metamorphic stages, survival and rate of multiplication. Insect’s immune responses as melanization,lysozyme level and phenoloxidase (PO) modify the physiology and morphological behavior against rndifferent factors like diets, gases and chemicals.