Human practices- a case in breeding of mosquito vectors in Ekwulobia, Anambra state Nigeria
Zita Obi, Lucy Anyaegbunam, Oslar Emmy-Egbe
Mosquitoes are associated with different breeding sites which are both natural and man-made. The survey of mosquito vectors and human practices that encourage their breeding was carried out in Ekwulobia, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of one thousand, one hundred and eighty-two (1,182) mosquitoes were recovered from the sampled households of four quarters in Ekwulobia. According to the methods of collection were as follows; human bait (85), pyrethrum (102), sweep net (677), and suction tube for those in resting position (323). The mosquitoes sampled were identified by a specialist in the area at National Arbovirus and Vector Research Division, Federal Ministry of Health Enugu, Nigeria. The mosquitoes species involved were, Culex quinquenfasciatus (69.9%), Aedes aegypti (18.1%), Aedes albopitus (6.4%), Anopheles gambiae (4.1%) and Mansonia Africana (1.2%). The abundance of mosquitoes in relation to sex were, females (81.8%) and males (18.2%). Considering the period of survey which was between June– October 2011 the relative abundance of mosquitoes were as follows, August – October collection, Culex spp was predominant (724) followed by Aedes spp (229) and Anopheles (32). In the sampling methods, sweep net was best for Culex and Aedes while human bait and pyrethrum were good for Anopheles and Mansonia which were found mostly indoors. Different human practices which favored the breeding of mosquitoes include; fermented cassava (489), farms (102), soak away pits (154), and earthen wares (77). The abundance of mosquito vectors in the four sampled quarters were; Ula (581), Agba (390), Eziagulu (163) and Abogwume (48). Owing to the abundance of mosquitoes in the study area, several preventive/control methods were used to avoid mosquito bites according to oral interview with some inhabitants., spray of insecticide, burning of mosquito coils, use of door and window screens, sleeping under insecticide treated nets, as well as use of herbs, which include, Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citraus), Rosemary (Romarinus officinalis), Mosquito plant (Citronella) and Neem (Azadirachta). This however suggests further study in mosquito surveillance in the area for its grass root control and related diseases.