The integrated remote sensing and GIS for mapping of potential vector breeding habitats, and the Internet GIS surveillance for epidemic transmission control, and management
M Palaniyandi, PH Anand, R Maniyosai, T Mariappan, PK Das
Background: Indian sub-continent has not only wealthy landscapes environment to support huge population, but also has big challenging problems of vector borne disease epidemics across the country. India has become host for all kinds of virus of malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and JE, and also endemic host for filariasis parasites. The integrated hybrid techniques of remote sensing, GPS, and GIS are used to map the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector abundance, and the active infection state of vector borne disease transmission, and surveillance towards the epidemic control and management.
Materials and Methods: The Indian IRS satellite data was used to mapping the use/ land cover of metropolitan study area, and was used to mapping of Malaria and JE Vector Mosquito Breeding Habitats. The mosquito potential breeding surface of malaria, dengue, chikungunya, JE and filariasis was calculated for the each ward and which was mapped with graduated colors. The Arc View 3.2, Arc View Spatial analysis and Arc View image analyst, GIS software used to create a systematic grid sampling method for conducting the reconnaissance survey and mapping mosquito breeding surface maps. GARMIN 12XL GPS was used to collect the mosquito reconnaissance survey for mosquito vectors in the city.
Result and Discussion: The total potential breeding surfaces of malaria, filariasis and JE were measured in square kilo meters (sq.km), the habitats positive for dengue and chikungunya vector mosquitoes breeding was calculated in percentage for mapping and the ward wise cumulative value of mosquitoes potential breeding was also estimated for mapping the areas vulnerable for mosquito problems and the extensive of vector mosquito borne disease transmissions. The mosquito’s problem was highly associated with population density and the number of houses, households, and perhaps, it was spatially good agreement with ground water tables. A systematic grid sampling was applied to conduct a rapid survey for mapping Aedes species mosquitogenic condition in the urban areas and the site coordinates of houses information with breeding habitats positive in the grid sectors was collected using GPS. The virtual GPS under the GIS umbrella was used to conduct a rapid survey with 0.5km distance interval (grid sampling procedures) for assessing the mosquitogenic condition and for mapping the sectors positives for dengue and chikungunya vector mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti or Ae. albopictus) breeding habitats (water storage vessels, plastic and cement containers, tires, plastic cups, coconut cells, tree holes, flower vessels, fridge, stone grinder, etc.,) with accurate site specifications, and the mean value of positive habitats was analyzed by quintiles method for mapping the ground situation in the urban settlements.
Conclusion: It is concluded that remote sensing, GPS, and GIS are effectively useful to identify, delineate and mapping of vector mosquitoes potential breeding surface areas and studying the mosquitogenic conditions in the urban agglomeration, and used to control and management of the vector borne disease transmission, perhaps, may also be GIS based surveillance is the best solution for epidemic control and management of the present situation vector borne disease transmission; especially, malaria and dengue epidemic in the country.
M Palaniyandi, PH Anand, R Maniyosai, T Mariappan, PK Das. The integrated remote sensing and GIS for mapping of potential vector breeding habitats, and the Internet GIS surveillance for epidemic transmission control, and management. J Entomol Zool Stud 2016;4(2):310-318.