Multivariate analysis of coccinellids fauna of malakand division, Pakistan
Rahat Ullah, Main Sayed Khan, Mian Inayatullah and Faizul Haq
Coccinellidae (ladybird beetles) fauna of Malakand division was explored during 2013-15. There are 28 species under 19 genera belonging to subfamilies Coccinellinae, Chilocorinae, Scymninae and Epilachninae. The statistical analysis (DCA ordination) of coccinellids fauna showed that different species clustered along different ordination axis having similar habitat types. The maximum eigenvalue were recorded for axis 1 (0.28) with gradient length of 1.32 indicating that the whole data set was dominated by single gradient length. The species which having maximum ordination score with axis 1 included Chilocorus circumdatus, Propylea dissecta, Hyperaspis leechi, Stethorus gilvifrons. The sample weighted mean species score were maximum for Dir lower with 132 value followed by Chitral with 85 score on axis 1. The DCA ordination showed that the minimum population size were recorded in November, December, January and February, maximum population size were recorded in September followed by October. The coccinellids fauna population changes with altitude. At high altitude its population size was minimum while at lower altitude its population size was maximum. The coccinellids fauna population was also disturbed by different birds which feed upon it.