Larvicidal efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) over the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Culicidae)
Amitabh Shad and J Andrew
The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say, is the major vector of filariasis, Japanese encephalitis and other plagues throughout the world, especially in the tropical and subtropical countries. For many decades chemical insecticides are widely used to control mosquitoes. Mosquitoes have developed resistance against these chemical insecticides. Excessive use of such insecticides has also adversely affected the environment. There is an imperative demand to search novel eco-friendly substitutes which are more effective, safe and economical. Plant extracts with proven insecticidal properties are an alternate to these insecticides. The present study describes the larvicidal activity of Annona squamosa plant over the mosquito, C. quinquefasciatus. The average larval mortality percentage after 24 hours of exposure to the ethanolic leaf extract of A. squamosa was recorded as 20%, 30%, 50%, 68% and 100% in respective concentrations of 2 mg/ml, 4 mg/ml, 6 mg/ml, 8 mg/ml and 10 mg/ml. The results of the present study revealed that the ethanolic leaf extracts of A. squamosa plant can be used effectively as a potential, eco-friendly, biodegradable and economic larvicide in integrated mosquito control programme.