Effect of temperature and food on the biology of Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts
Sunil Kumar Yadav and Chitra Srivastava
The effect of temperature and type of food on biology of khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium was determined at temperatures of 30 °C, 32 °C, 35 °C and 40 °C and on different types of food viz., whole grain, crushed grain and flour of wheat in laboratory. The results show that unmated females lived 12-28 days, mated females 5-11 days and unmated males 4-17 days, mated mates 3-13 days, and the adult longevity decreased with increasing temperature. The fecundity and fertility were the maximum at 35 °C which declined at lower and higher ranges of temperature. The incubation period was the maximum at 30 °C which decreased with increasing temperature. The larval life was the shortest at 35 °C, of 19.5 days for males on flour and 23 days for female on crushed grain. The pupal period of females was usually longer than the males and duration decreased with an increase in temperature. The total developmental period was the minimum at 35 °C while maximum at 30 °C on all the tested food types. The survival rate was the maximum at 35 °C on flour whereas; it was markedly decreased at 40 °C and on whole grain.