Stem cells: A novel initiative to treat infertility
Advances in stem cell research have opened novel perspectives for regenerative and reproductive medicine. Several groups have reported in vitro differentiation of stem cells into germ cell lineages and some of them have been successful to obtain male and female gamete-like cells by using different methodologies. Foremost, in vitro germ cell differentiation depends on establishment of ideal culture system that should recapitulate in vivo niche of germ cells. Seemingly, this approach of producing artificial gametes provides a paradigm to study the molecular basis of germ line establishment and may create new avenue to treat reproductive disorders in the future. This present review briefly describes different assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that are currently being used to treat human infertility and summarizes current knowledge of derivation artificial gametes from pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and account different prospective of these in vitro differentiated cells in present and future reproductive biology.