A review of genetic and biological status of Iranian two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus), a valuable endangered species
Taghi Ghassemi Khademi
Camelus bactrianus is a species with a history of several thousand years ago and according to the authentic documents, the main origin of this species is Iran. In the meantime, Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) is a valuable animal considered as genetic and biological capital. Unfortunately, the population of these animals has been declining in recent years so that right now there are only 150 camels in the country and it can be claimed that the only habitats of this Valuable species in Iran, is Ardabil Province. Iranian two-humped camels have a native type with fluffy and fleshy breed with grayish tan to light white and its male and female heights are 185 and 180 centimeters. Molecular studies using microsatellite markers have shown that the Bactrian camels, despite very small population size, have still acceptable genetic diversity and the extension of this genetically valuable species in the country could be prevented by proper management and breeding programs. Also the PIMA technique (PCR Isolation of Microsatellite Arrays) has a good application for the isolation and identification of microsatellite markers of Bactrian camels and this method is a useful tool to conduct population genetics studies and identity Bactrian camels. The conducted Phylogenetic studies have shown that Bactrian camels have the highest percentage of similarity in terms of genetic relationship in camelidae family and has minimum genetic distance with domesticated Bactrian camels and has the lowest similarity and maximum genetic distance with lama species.