Biology, ecology and significance of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Kariyanna B, Mohan M and Rajeev Gupta
Family Cerambycidae is one of the economically most important wood boring insect. It interferes and causes damages to forests, forest products, shade trees, fruit and nut trees, vegetable and field crops, seeds, orchids, and flowers. The long antennae, absence of a beak, and pseudo tetramerous tarsal segments serve to separate most adults of this very large family from other beetles. The grubs of most species develop for about one year or more in the tree trunk either as sap wood or heart wood feeder. Larvae of some species develop in highly decomposed wood, while others develop in herbaceous plants or roots. The infested trees may be killed and can have a major economic impact. Adults are relatively short lived, may feed on pollen and nectar of flowers, fungal spores or are attracted to sap flows on trees. The eggs are usually deposited under bark or in cracks in the wood with the help of the ovipositor. The larva is a stout, elongate, segmented, practically legless grub when full-grown, and is usually white or yellowish white or pale orange in colour. Larvae have strongly sclerotized mandibles capable of tunnelling the heartwood timber. Pupa usually lies quite naked in the pupal chamber at the tail of the larval tunnel. The microclimate of tree trunks, canopy and branches is a very important factor for this pest for normal growth and development.