Impact of organic inputs and transplanting dates on foraging activity of honey bees in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
Divya Prakash Singh, Verma SC, Priyanka Thakur and Sujata Kumari
An investigation was carried out during two consecutive years (2014-15 and 2015-16) at Research Farm of Department of Seed Science and Technology, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-273230 (H. P.). The experiment was conducted on effect of different organic inputs like vermicompost, FYM, Azotobactor, PSB and PGPR and transplanting dates on foraging activity of honey bees in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The transplanting was done on three different dates during both years. There were seven treatments including control (RDF) and each treatment was replicated thrice. The data was analysed in factorial randomized block design. The study revealed that among the organic treatments, observations of most frequent pollinators were taken throughout the blooming period of the crop. Syrphids were dominant insect visitors among various pollinators visited to radish flowers bloom followed by honey bees and other pollinators. Hymenoptera were the major floral visitors comparing of other species viz Lepidoptera, Coleoptera. Among these, A. mellifera, A. cerana, A. dorsata and Bombus sp. were found to be the most frequent visitors. Foraging activity of honey bees was higher 6.99, 6.39, 6.07 honey bees/plot/5 minute on Ist IInd and IIIrd dates of transplanting, respectively at 1200 h followed by 1500 h and 0900 h. Foraging activity of A. cerana was higher (Ist: 6.81; IInd : 6.24; IIIrd : 5.39) then A. mellifera (Ist: 5.66; IInd :5.07; IIIrd :4.29).