Distribution pattern of foliage insects among the summer vegetables viz. okra, brinjal and tomato
Naureen Rana, Tehmina Amin, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Shahla Nargis, Somia Afzal and Saira Fatima
The vegetables are excellent source as human food and nutrition since immemorial time. Okra, brinjal and tomato are important and indigenous vegetable crops of Pakistan. Varieties of foliage insects invade these vegetable fields and play role positively or negatively. Hence, the present research work was conducted to record the distribution pattern of foliage insects among the summer vegetables viz. okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under the ecological conditions of district Faisalabad (Punjab), Pakistan along the whole season. Among tomato fields, total 108 species were recorded belonging to 09 orders, 56 families and 100 genera; while among brinjal fields, total 107 species were recorded belonging to 11 orders, 52 families and 100 genera; whereas among okra fields, total 96 species were recorded belonging to 10 orders, 48 families and 88 genera. Among these three vegetable fields, total 7773 specimens were collected during entire sampling and maximum population was recorded from okra fields 44.77% (N = 3480); followed by brinjal fields 31.20% (N = 2425) and least population was recorded from tomato fields 24.03% (N = 1868). Wherein in case of okra fields, maximum population was recorded during 2nd sampling (704±292.74), followed by 609±225.57 (5th sampling), 416±89.10 (1st sampling), 367±54.45 (10th sampling) and so on. Whereas, species abundance was recorded utmost in 2nd sampling (38) species at temperature 41 ºC and 27% relative humidity. In case of brinjal fields, maximum population was recorded during 11th sampling (871±473.00), followed by 270±48.02 (10th sampling), 207±3.48 (8th sampling), 188±9.96 (9th sampling) and so on. Whereas, species abundance was recorded maximum in 10th sampling (33) species at temperature 28ºC and 92% humidity. In case of tomato fields, maximum population was recorded during 9th sampling (325±120.03), followed by 187±22.45 (6th sampling), 178±16.09 (12th sampling), 160±3.36 (7thsampling) and so on; wherein species abundance was recorded utmost in 9th sampling (35) species at temperature 34ºC and 62% humidity. ANOVA among three vegetables (brinjal, okra and tomato) showed non-significant results (F = 0.17; P = 0.8460).