Tharparkar is one of the most important milch breed of the western arid region of India, it has a distinct identity amongst all Indian cattle breeds, which can withstand harsh desert climatic conditions, and provide livelihood security to the millions of the rural farmers. It is an indispensable component of animal agriculture in arid region of India especially Rajasthan. It is popular among farmers as it produces an ample quantity of milk and supports agriculture farming through its drought power. In breeding tract, the Tharparkars are usually kept in herds of 50 to 300 animals by professional breeders called Maldars. When left on arid pasture the milk production is approximately 1135 kg per lactation, while those animals maintained in the villages average 1980 kg. Because of its peculiar features ‘Tharparkar’ has caught the attention of breeders in the country and has been extensively used in crossbreeding programs. Its crosses with various exotic breeds like Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss has proved to be a very good milk producer. Reviewed literature suggests that this breed suits best to the harsh tropical climatic conditions and can be propagated for sustainable dairy farming.