Climatic change is the major threat at present time, globally. It affects a wide range of components which are related with health, work capacity, production, reproduction, and adaptability of the animals. Animal husbandry sector is mainly affected by high temperature and high humidity. The productivity, reproductive performance and health of livestock are adversely affected by climatic stress which results in significant economic losses. Moreover, heat stress affects animal’s reproductive performance and productivity of dairy animals. It has a direct effect on estrus behavior in dairy animals. Further, it produces reduced growth and reproduction, increased susceptibility to diseases, and ultimately delayed initiation of lactation in the livestock. Heat stress may affect the feed intake which reduces reproduction efficiency in hens, egg production and interruption of ovulation. Moreover, egg quality due to heat stress may also be negatively affected. Of late, practices like air cooled shades, sprinklers and proper ventilation will be suitable for adapting to future climates changes and minimize heat stress in dairy animals. During summer stress improved cooling and proper ventilation in animal houses are still the most profitable and effective method to improve both milk production and reproduction. Effective cooling system, housing and feeding management and other newer technologies are available through which climatic impacts on livestock can be diminished
Pavan Kumar Mittal, GS Gottam, Barkha Gupta, Desh Raj Bilochi. The effect of climate change on productivity and reproductive and health performance of livestock: A review. J Entomol Zool Stud 2019;7(2):04-09.