Management of Dacine fruit flies (Tephritidae: Dacinae: Dacini) in horticultural ecosystems: A review
A Vasudha and ML Agarwal
Several species of fruit flies, particularly belonging to tribe Dacini are invasive pests of horticultural crops worldwide, due to their wide climatic tolerance, polyphagous nature, high reproduction potential, multivoltine nature and high capacity for dispersal. They pose enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production throughout the world, causing both quantitative and qualitative losses. Among dacini fruit flies, species belonging to three genera, viz. Bactrocera Macquart, Dacus Fabricius and Zeugodacus Hendel are economically important. Fourteen species belonging to these genera are most serious pests, causing enormous losses to all kinds of fruits and vegetables in India. Notes on pest status, male lures and distribution of these economically important species have been added. Besides, their nature of damage, methods of detection and inspection, monitoring, pest risk analysis and management practices have been incorporated in this review.