Beekeeping diseases and pests in east and west Gojjam zones of Amhara region, Ethiopia
Bizuayehu Ayele, Abebe Jenberie, Mussie Haylemelekot and Workneh Ayalew
The study was conducted in West and East Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region to determine the occurrence of honeybee diseases, pests and predators. Questionnaire survey and laboratory diagnostic methods were used for the study. In the questionnaire survey, 384 respondent beekeepers were interviewed. Similarly, for laboratory work 194 honeybee colonies sampled in apiary sites and backyard beekeeping management system were examined for the presence of honeybee pests, external parasites and disease pathogens. Descriptive, frequency and chi-square (x2) test with SPSS version 20 were used. Affecting honeybee colonies were ants (17.4%), wax moth (16.7%), birds (16%), praying mantis (12%) honey badger (12%), bee lice (10.9%), small hive beetle (10.6%), wasp (4.8%), snake (2%) and lizards (1%). The major beekeeping constraints were absconding (22.8%), scarcity of bee forage (11.9%), agro-chemical application (11.8%), drought (11.2%), lack of technical skill (poor honeybee colony management) (10.6%), honeybee diseases (10.2%), scarcity of water (9.7%) and lack of credit (8.1%) and high costs of improved inputs for beekeeping (3.4%). During internal and external hive inspection pests and predators were observed. In the laboratory diagnosis results, colony level prevalence of Varroa mite, bee lice, Nosema apis and amoeba was 78.35%, 11.34%, 51.03% and 98.72%, respectively with different risk factors at chi-square test. Their statistical significance was tested at P<0.05 variation in overall prevalence which is varroa mite statistically significant at P<0.05 in colony management type and location. Hive type, study location and Amoeba was statistically significant at P<0.05 in study location.