Evaluation the toxicity of Viola odorata extract and Spirotetramat pesticide on the Agonoscena pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psyllidea)
Seyyed Hamid Razavi, Kamran Mahdian
The Agonoscena pistaciae is one of the most important pests in pistachio plant on which the adults feed the plant sap and causes the plants growth reduction, falling flowering buds and hence results in yield reduction. High reproductive potential and short growth period increase the resistance of this pest against different pesticides. Also pesticides because environmental problems and show biological magnification, therefore, using more safe materials like plant extracts, have been considered in this pest control and management. These materials have extensive range and also have the components which degrade easily within the soil, so they are safernregarding the environmental conditions and can be used as appropriate alternative of traditional pesticide. The present study have evaluate the Viola odorata extract and Spirotetramat pesticide toxicity on the A. pistaciae (Hemiptera: Psyllidea). The mortality rate results showed that the Viola odorata extract was effective on A. pistaciae mortality percentage. Also the Spirotetramat pesticide has toxic effect on A. pistaciae. The LC50 for V. odorata extract was approximately equals to 5.76/1000. The LC50, up and down limits of Spirotetramat pesticide on this insect were equal to 0.09/1000, 0.02/1000 and 0.31/1000 respectively.